Propylen glkcol (1, 2-propanediol) is an organic compound (a diol alcohol), usually a tasteless, odorless, and colorless clear oily liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. It is manufactured by the hydration of propylene oxide. Propilen glicol is used as a solvent for intravenous, oral, and topical pharmaceutical preparations It is generally considered safe. Jual
However in large doses it can be toxic, especially if given over a short period of time. Intravenous lorazepam contains the largest amount of propilen glicol of commonly used drugs. In adults with normal liver and kidney function, the terminal half-life of propilen glykol ranges from 1. 4 to 3. 3 hours. Propylen glykol is metabolized by the liver to form lactate, acetate, and pyruvate. The nonmetabolized drug is excreted in the urine mainly as the glucuronide conjugate, approximately 12 to 45 percent is excreted unchanged in urine. Jual
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As an acceptable level of propilen glikol has not been defined, the clinical implication of a propylen glykol level is unclear. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a maximum consumption of 25 mg/kg/day (1. 8 g/day for a 75 kg male) of propilen glycol when used as a food additive, but this limit does not address its use as a drug solvent. No maximum dose is recommended in the literature for intravenous therapy with propylen glycol. Jual Propylene Glycol
Intoxication occurs at much higher doses than the WHO dose limit and is exclusive to pharmacologic exposure. Propylen glycol toxicity includes development of serum hyperosmolality, lactic acidosis, and kidney failure. It has been suggested that proximal tubular necrosis is the cause of acute kidney injury from propilene glykol. Jual
Along these lines, proximal tubular cell injury occurs in cultured human cells exposed to propylene glikol. Acute tubular necrosis was described with propylen glykol toxicity in a case of concomitant administration of intravenous lorazepam and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. Jual
Propylene glikol induced intoxication can also mimic sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Patients suspected of having sepsis with negative cultures should be evaluated for propylene glykol toxicity if they have been exposed to high dose lorazepam or other medications containing this solvent.
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Propylen glycol is a synthetic liquid substance that absorbs water. Propylen glycol is also used to make polyester compounds, and as a base for deicing solutions. It is used to absorb extra water and maintain moisture in certain medicines, cosmetics, or food products. It is a solvent for food colors and flavors, and in the paint and plastics industries. Jual Propylene
Propylen glycol is also used to create artificial smoke or fog used in fire-fighting training and in theatrical productions. Other names for propylene glykol are 1,2-dihydroxypropane, 1,2-propanediol, methyl glkcol, and trimethyl glykol. Propylene glykol is clear, colorless, slightly syrupy liquid at room temperature. It may exist in air in the vapor form, although propylen glykol must be heated or briskly shaken to produce a vapor. Propylene glykol is practically odorless and tasteless. Jual Propylene Glycol Food Grade
It is produced on a large scale and is primarily used in the production of polymers, but also sees use in food processing, and as a process fluid in low temperature heat exchange applications. In the European Union, it has the E-number E1520 for food applications. Jual
Propylen glycol is a clear, colorless and hygroscopic liquid. Propylen glycol contains an asymmetrical carbon atom, so it exists in two enantiomers. The commercial product is a racemic mixture. Pure optical isomers can be obtained by hydration of optically pure propylene oxide. Jual
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The freezing point of water is depressed when mixed with propylen glycol owing to the effects of dissolution of a solute in a solvent (freezing-point depression). In general, glycols are non-corrosive, have very low volatility and very low toxicity; however, the closely related ethylene glycol (a key ingredient in antifreeze) is toxic to humans and to many animals. Jual Propylene
propylen glycol is produced from propylene oxide (for food-grade use), and global capacity in 1990 was 900,000 tonnes per year. Different manufacturers use either non-catalytic high-temperature process at 200 °C (392 °F) to 220 °C (428 °F), or a catalytic method, which proceeds at 150 °C (302 °F) to 180 °C (356 °F) in the presence of ion exchange resin Jual Propylene Glycol Food Grade
Final products contain 20% propilene glykol, 1.5% of dipropylen glykol and small amounts of other polypropylen glycols. Further purification produces finished industrial grade or USP/JP/EP/BP grade propylen glykol that is typically 99.5% or greater. Propylen glykol can also be converted from glycerol, a biodiesel byproduct. Jual
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Forty-five percent of propylen glycol produced is used as chemical feedstock for the production of unsaturated polyester resins. In this regard, propylene glykol reacts with a mixture of unsaturated maleic anhydride and isophthalic acid to give a copolymer. This partially unsaturated polymer undergoes further crosslinking to yield thermoset plastics. Propylen glykol is used as a humectant (E1520), solvent, and preservative in food and for tobacco products. Jual
It is also one of the major ingredients (<1–92%), along with glycerol, of the e-liquid and cartridges used in electronic cigarettes where it is aerosolized in the atomizer.Propylen glykol is also used in various edible items such as coffee-based drinks, liquid sweeteners, ice cream, whipped dairy products and soda.Vaporizers used for delivery of pharmaceuticals or personal-care products often include propylen glykol among the ingredientsJual
Propylen glycol is used as a solvent in many pharmaceuticals, including oral, injectable and topical formulations, such as for diazepam and lorazepam which are insoluble in water. Certain formulations of artificial tears, such as Systane, use proplyene glycol as an ingredient.
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Propylene glykol is frequently used as a substitute for ethylene glycol in low toxicity, environmentally friendly automotive antifreeze. It is also used to winterize the plumbing systems in vacant structures. The eutectic composition/temperature is 60:40 propylene glykol:water/-60 °C.The −50 °F/−45 °C commercial product is, however, water rich; a typical formulation is 40:60. Jual
Propylene glycol is used in veterinary medicine as an oral treatment for hyperketonaemia in ruminants. Glucose, which can be used in non-ruminants for this purpose, is not effective due to its consumption by the resident microbes of the rumen. Propylene glycol is partially metabolized in the rumen to propionate which can be used as an energy source. The remainder is absorbed into the bloodstream and used by the liver for gluconeogenesis.